Hear in English :
Heaven of Earth was locked by Article 370 is a history of one State “Jammu and Kashmir” better known as J&K. This state has a privilege that this state was never under British Government.
Become Independent State
Jammu and Kashmir was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1947. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, when the East India Company, which had annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs as war indemnity, then sold the region to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for rupees 75 lakh.
Muslims and Pandits in Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir was having larger population of Hindus better known as Kashmiri Pandits and Muslims were in minors. There were very tough rules for Muslims during that time. They were not allowed to get education, they couldn’t do their own business and they needed to serve Pandits. Pandits were like Upper caste over there. Muslims were quite unhappy with it and Sheikh Abdullah, Founder of All J&K Muslim Conference , were against these Pandits. Later, he played major role to destroy Kashmir Valley.
Partition of India
During partition, British Government gave option to each and every state whether they would go with India or Pakistan or be an Independent state. Only three states or kingdoms were decided not to go with India or Pakistan, Junagarh, Hyderabad and J&K. Sardar Patel convinced Junagadh and Hyderabad to be part of India but J&K decided to be Independent State (Princely State). On 26th October, Pakistan attacked and captured part of Kashmir known as PoK. Hari Singh, who was the king of Kashmir during that time was not having proper equipment to fight with them, he went to India to support them but India told that till the time they sign document with them. Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh to get security from India on 27th October 1947.
J&K after Independence (Article 370 and 35A born)
After signing the document (Instrument of Accession), J&K was getting security from Indian Army which is there till date. Pakistan was always thinking that they almost captured Kashmir Valley in October 1947, but because of IA, India was controlling Kashmir. When Indian Constitution made, Instrument of Accession was documented as Article 370 and 35A. Sheikh Abdullah was part of the committee who formed this constitution and made few amendments in the legal terms like earlier only Maharaja of Kashmir can implement Indian Rules in Kashmir but he made it J&K assembly. Prime Minister of India added President also along with J&K assembly to implement Government rule and also made it temporary document which could be revoked anytime with Parliament and President decision.
Time to time, Article 370 was weakened by Indian Government with the help of Sheikh Abdullah, who was Prime Minister of J&K. He improved the position of Muslims in Kashmir and population of Muslims increased and they became major and Kashmiri Pandits were in minor. Most of the Pandits left J&K to other states of India for their living and education.
The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley because of being targeted by JKLF and Islamist insurgents during late 1989 and early 1990. Of the approximately 300,000 to 600,000 Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley in 1990 only 2,000–3,000 remain there in 2016.
According to the Indian government, more than 62,000 families are registered as Kashmiri refugees including some Sikh and Muslim families. Most families were resettled in Jammu, National Capital Region surrounding Delhi and other neighboring states. After that Kashmir become a full Muslim state and got much control of the Valley. Females were started marrying Pakistani males and they were getting access to Kashmir Valley. That was the main reason of terrorism in Kashmir.
End of Article 370
On 5th August 2019, Indian Government removed article 370, 35A and made J&K as Union Territory. They separated Leh and Ladakh also from J&K and make it as well Union Territory. Most of the people opposing it but the intention of government is to provide all government facilities to J&K people as well which was not possible with Article 370. Although people of Kashmir facing a lot of restriction as a safety measure. They can’t use internet or gather in public. They were under the surveillance of Indian Army. But I hope that it would be better in future for their better future.
People of Kashmir were never get happiness after Independence. They were like sandwich between India and Pakistan because of their administration. Nobody thought about the future of youth over there. I have written my first article on this “Kashmiri, Born in Boon, Die in Curse in so called ‘Heaven on Earth'”
At Last, I wish that people of Kashmir would get better life after Article 370 and 35A removal. I personally thank Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Home Minister Amit Shah